Indigenous peoples are among those most adversely affected by climate change, despite their small carbon footprint. In large part, this is because of their close relationship with nature, and their dependence on it for their livelihoods. It is therefore essential that indigenous peoples are actively involved in climate actions at all levels and that their rights are respected.

A variety of articles in the Declaration establish the framework for this to happen. These include, among others, Articles 3 (self-determination), 18 (participation in decision-making in matters that would affect their rights), 19 (free, prior, and informed consent for legislative or administrative measures that may affect them), and 32 (free, prior, and informed consent for projects affecting their lands, territories, and resources) . In addition, the preamble to the 2015 Paris Climate Agreement states specifically that in all climate actions, parties should “respect, promote, and consider their respective obligations on . . . the rights of indigenous peoples . . . .”

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